Ingredients and Substitutions


Here are some of the substitutions I’ve used over the years and have found work best. Enjoy!

Binders and Egg Substitutes:

For one egg, you may substitute with any of the following:

  • 2 tsp (10 ml) ground chia seeds plus 3 Tbsp (45 ml) water
  • 1 Tbsp (15 ml) ground flax seeds plus 3 Tbsp (45 ml) water
  • 1/4 cup (60 ml) silken tofu
  • 1 tsp (5 ml) potato starch mixed with 1/2 tsp (2.5 ml) cornstarch plus 2 Tbsp (30 ml) water (I’ve never tried this one, but have been told it works much like Ener-G egg replacer)
  • Fruit purées:  some people use about 1/4-1/3 cup fruit purée per egg (think: banana, applesauce, prune purée, etc.).
  • Avocado: for recipes where color isn’t an issue, 1/4 cup (60 ml) mashed avocado is a great egg substitute


I spent a lot of time formulating my own gluten-free flour mix.  You can find the recipe here.]


For each 1 cup  dairy milk, you can substitute:

1 cup almond, hemp, oat, or dairy milk

7/8 cup rice milk

In some cases, apple juice (or even water) can be substituted if 1 tsp. cornstarch is added to the liquid

1/2 cup (120 ml) canned coconut milk mixed with 1/2 cup (120 ml) water


As of 2009, I generally use either extra virgin olive oil or coconut oil in my baking. However, many of my earlier recipes use a light oil like sunflower.   For recipes in which a solid fat is necessary, I always use coconut oil.

For each 1/2 cup coconut oil, you can substitute 1/3 cup liquid oil, such as sunflower or olive.